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This section contains items taken from various archives materials taken from documents of the period.

London Gazette – 23 October 1914

MEMORANDUM BY THE DIRECTOR OF THE AIR DEPARTMENT, ADMIRALTY.

Commander Charles R Samson, R.N., was in command of the Aeroplane and Armoured Motor Support of the Royal Naval Air Service (Naval Wing) at Dunkerque, between the dates 1st September to 5th October.

During this period several notable air reconnaisances were made, and skirmishes took place.  Of these particular mention may be. made of the Aeroplane attack on 4th September on 4 enemy cars and 40 men, on which occasion several bombs were dropped; and of the successful skirmishes at Cassel on 4th September, Savy on 12th September, Aniche on 22nd September, Orchies oh 23rd September. 

On the 22nd September, Flight Lieutenant C. H. Collet, of the Royal Naval Air Service (Naval Wing of the Royal Flying Corps), flying a Sopwith tractor biplane, made a long flight and a successful attack on the German Zeppelin Airship Shed at Dusseldorf. 

Lieutenant Collet's feat is notable —gliding down from 6,000 feet, the last 1,500 feet in mist, he finally came in sight of the Airship Shed at a height of 400 feet, only a quarter of a mile away from it.  Flight Lieutenant Marix, acting under the orders of Squadron Commander Spenser Grey, carried out a successful attack on the Dusseldorf airship shed during the afternoon of the 8th October.  From a height of 600 feet he dropped two bombs on the shed, and flames 500 feet high, were seen within thirty seconds.  The roof of the shed was also observed to collapse. 

Lieutenant Marix's machine was under heavy fire from rifles and mitrailleuse and was five times hit whilst making the attack.  Squadron Commander Spenser Grey, whilst in charge of a flight of naval aeroplanes at Antwerp, penetrated during a 31 hours flight into the enemy's country as far as Cologne on the 8th October.  He circled the city under fire at 600 feet and discharged his bombs on the military railway station.  Considerable damage was done.

11th  October, 1914.

London Gazette - 1 January 1915

"Memorandum by the Director of the Air Department.

                                                                                                                    Admiralty, 

17th December, 1914.

On 21st November, 1914, Squadron Commander E. F. Briggs, Flight Commander J. T. Babington, and Flight Lieutenant S. V. Sippe, Royal Navy, carried out an aerial attack on the Zeppelin airship sheds and factory at Friedrickshafen on Lake Constance.  

Leaving French Territory shortly before 10 a.m., they arrived over their objective at about noon, and, although under a very heavy rifle, machine-gun and shrapnel fire from the moment they were sighted, they all three dived steeply to within a few hundred feet of the sheds, when they released their bombs - in all eleven.

Squadron Commander Briggs was wounded, brought down, and made a prisoner, but the other two officers regained their starting-point, after a flight of more than four hours across hostile country under very bad weather conditions.

It is believed that the damage caused by this attack includes the destruction of one airship and serious damage to the larger shed, and also demolition of the hydrogen-producing plant, which had only lately been completed.  Later reports stated that flames of considerable magnitude were seen issuing from the factory immediately after the raid."

 

London Gazette - 19 February 1915

"ADMIRALTY MEMORANDUM on the combined operations by H.M. Ships and Naval Seaplanes on the 25th December, 1914.

On the 25th December, 1914, an air reconnaissance of the Heligoland Bight, including Cuxhaven, Heligoland, and Wilhelmshaven,  was made by naval seaplanes, and the opportunity was taken at the same time of attacking with bombs points of military importance.  The reconnaissance involved combined operations by light cruisers, destroyers and seaplane-carriers, under Commodore Reginald Y. Tyrwhitt, C.B., and submarines acting under the orders of Commodore Roger Keyes, C.B., M.V.O.

The vessels detailed for the operations arrived at their rendezvous before daylight, and as soon as the light was sufficient the seaplanes were hoisted out and despatched.  The following Air Service officers and observers took part in the reconnaissance:—

Pilots.

Flight Commander (now Squadron Commander) Douglas Austin Oliver.

Flight Commander Francis Esme Theodore Hewlett.

Flight Commander Robert Peel Ross.

Flight Commander Cecil Francis Kilner.

Flight Lieutenant (now Flight Commander) Arnold John Miley.

Flight Lieutenant Charles Humphrey Kingsman Edmonds.

Flight Sub-Lieutenant (now Flight Lieutenant) Vivian Gaskell Blackburn.

Observers

Lieutenant Erskine Childers, R.N.V.R.

C.P.O. Mechanic James W. Bell

C.P.Q. Mechanic Gilbert H. W. Budds.

The seaplane-carriers were commanded by:-

Squadron Commander Cecil J. L'Estrange Malone.

Flight Commander Edmund D. M. Robertson.

Flight Commander Frederick W. Bowhill.

At the beginning, of the flight the weather was clear, but on Hearing the land the seaplanes met with thick weather, and were compelled to fly low, thus becoming exposed to a heavy fire at short range from ships and shore batteries.  Several machines were hit, but all remained in the air for over three hours, and succeeded in obtaining valuable information regarding the disposition of the enemy's ships and defences.  Bombs were also dropped on military points.  In the meanwhile German submarines, seaplanes and Zeppelins delivered a combined attack upon the light cruisers, destroyers and seaplane-carriers, but were driven off.

Flight Commanders Kilner and Ross and Flight Lieutenant Edmonds regained their ships.  Flight Commander Oliver, Flight Lieutenant Miley and Flight Sub-Lieutenant Blackburn became short of fuel, and were compelled to descend near Submarine E.ll, which with other submarine vessels was watching inshore to assist any seaplane that might be in difficulties.  Lieutenant-Commander Martin E. Nasmith, commanding E.ll, although attacked by an airship, succeeded, by his coolness and resource, in rescuing the three pilots.  Flight Commander Hewlett, after a flight of 3˝ hours, was compelled to descend on account of engine trouble, but was rescued by a Dutch trawler, landed in Holland, and returned safely to England.

An expression of their Lordships' appreciation has been conveyed to Commodore Keyes (Commodore S.), Commodore Tyrwhitt (Commodore T), and to Captain Sueter (Director of the Air Department), for their share in the combined operations which resulted in this successful reconnaissance.

The KING has been graciously pleased to give orders for the following appointments to the Distinguished Service Order:—

To be Companions of the Distinguished Service Order.

Captain Cecil Francis Kilner, R.M.L.I. (Flight Commander).

Lieutenant Charles Humphrey Kingsman Edmonds, R.N. (Flight Lieutenant).

The following awards have also been made:— 

To receive the Distinguished Service Medal.

Chief Petty Officer Mechanic James William Bell, No.M.489.

Chief Petty Officer Mechanic Gilbert Howard William Budds, No.271764.

Admiralty, 19th February, 1915."

 

London Gazette - 1 January 1915

War Office, 

1st January, 1915.

ROYAL WARRANT instituting a new Decoration, entitled "The.Military Cross"

GEORGE, R.I.

GEORGE THE FIFTH by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India, To all to whom these Presents shall come Greeting;  Whereas We have taken into Our Royal consideration the distinguished services in time of War of Officers of certain ranks in Our Army; And whereas We are desirous of signifying Our appreciation of such services by a mark of Our Royal favour We do by these Presents for Us Our heirs and successors institute and create a Cross to be awarded to Officers whose distinguished and meritorious services have been brought to Our notice. 

Firstly: It is ordained that the Cross shall be designated "The Military Cross."

Secondly: It is ordained that The Military Cross shall consist of a Cross of silver having on each arm Our Imperial Crown and bearing in the centre the letters G.R.I. 

Thirdly: It is ordained that no person shall be eligible for this Decoration nor be nominated thereto unless he is a Captain, a Commissioned Officer of a lower grade, or a Warrant Officer in Our Army, or Our Indian or Colonial Military Forces, and that The Military Cross shall be awarded only to Officers of the above ranks on a recommendation to Us by Our Principal Secretary of State for War.

Fourthly: It is ordained that Foreign Officers of an equivalent rank to those above mentioned, who have, been associated in Military operations with Our Army, or Our Indian or Colonial Military Forces shall be eligible for the Honorary award of The Military Cross.

Fifthly: It is ordained that the names of those upon whom We may be pleased to confer this Decoration shall be published in the London Gazette, and that a Register thereof shall be kept in the Office of Our Principal Secretary of State for War.

Sixthly: It is ordained that The Military Cross shall be worn immediately after all Orders and before all Decorations and Medals (the Victoria Cross alone excepted), and shall be worn on the left breast pendent from a riband of one inch and three-eighths in width, which shall be in colour white with a purple stripe.

Seventhly: It is ordained that The Military Cross shall not confer any individual .precedence, and shall not entitle the recipient to any addition after his name as part of his description or title. 

Eighthly: It is ordained that any person whom by an especial Warrant under Our Royal Sign Manual We declare to have forfeited The Military Cross shall return the said Decoration to the Office of Our Principal Secretary of State for War, and that his name shall be erased from the Register of those upon whom the said Decoration shall have been conferred.

Lastly: We reserve to Ourself, Our heirs and successors full power of annulling, altering, abrogating, augmenting, interpreting, or dispensing with these Regulations, or any part-thereof, by a notification under Our Royal Sign Manual.

Given at Our Court at St. James's, this 28th day of December, one thousand nine hundred and fourteen, in the Fifth year of Our Reign.

By His Majesty's Command.

Kitchener.

 

London Gazette - 2 April 1918

ORDER OF THE AIR COUNCIL FOR TRANSFERRING AND ATTACHING OFFICERS AND MEN TO THE AIR FORCE.

Whereas His Majesty,  in pursuance of the powers conferred on Him by the Air Force (Constitution)  Act,  1917,  has decided to raise and maintain an Air Force,  and has given to the Air Council directions to do all such things as may be necessary for that purpose And whereas it is enacted by sub-section (1)  of section three of the said Act that any officer,  warrant officer,  petty officer,  non-commissioned officer,  or man of any of His Majesty's Naval or Military Forces,  may,  with his consent and subject to the approval of the Admiralty or Army Council (as the case may be) ,  be transferred by the Air Council to the Air Force,  or attached by the Air Council to the Air Force for the period of the present war or for a period not exceeding four years:

And whereas it is enacted by proviso (a)  to the said sub-section that "any officer,  warrant officer,  petty officer,  non-commissioned officer,  or man, who at such date as may be fixed by Order in Council belongs or is attached to the Royal Naval Air -Service, the Royal Flying Corps, or any unit of the naval or military forces engaged in defence against air craft which is designated by the Admiralty or Army Council for the purpose, may be so transferred or attached without his consent, but if any person so transferred or attached, within three months from the time when he receives notice of such transfer or attachment or such longer period as in any particular case the Air Council may allow, gives notice to his commanding officer that he does not desire to be so transferred or attached, the transfer or attachment shall be annulled without prejudice to the validity of anything which may have been done in the meanwhile:"

And whereas His Majesty by Order in Council made on the 22nd day of March, 1918, fixed the first day of April, 1918, as the date for the purpose of the said proviso (a) :

Now, therefore, the Air Council, in pursuance of the powers conferred on them by the said Act and with the consent of the Admiralty and Army Council, hereby order as follows: -

1.    The officers mentioned in Part I of the Schedule to this Order shall by virtue of this Order become attached to the Air Force.  The period for which those officers will be so attached shall be the period of the present war or four years, whichever may be the longer, unless in the case of any officer, before this expiration of such period, the Air Council arrange, with the Admiralty or Army Council, as the case may be, for his return to the naval or military service.

Provided that in the case of an officer who was attached to the Royal Naval Air Service or the Royal Flying Corps the period for which he is attached to the Air Force shall in no case exceed such period as will complete the period for which he was attached to the Royal Naval Air Service or the Royal Flying Corps. 

2.    The officers, warrant officers, petty officers, non-commissioned officers 'and men mentioned in Part II of the Schedule to this Order shall by virtue of this Order be transferred to the Air Force. 

3.    This Order shall take effect on the first day of April, 1918. 

4.    Any person transferred or attached to the Air Force by virtue of this Order may within three months from the time when he receives notice of such transfer or attachment give notice to his Commanding Officer that he does not desire to be so transferred or attached, and in that case the transfer or attachment will be annulled without prejudice to the validity of anything which may have been done in the meanwhile.

SCHEDULE.

PART I.

All officers holding permanent commissions in the Navy or Royal .Marines or commissions other than temporary in the Royal Naval Reserve or Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve who on the first day of April, 1918, belonged or were attached to the Royal Naval Air Service. All officers holding permanent commissions in the Regular Forces or commissions in the Reserve of Officers, the Special Reserve (except Royal Flying Corps Special Reserve) , Territorial Force or Territorial Force Reserve who on the first day of April, 1918, belonged or were attached to the Royal Flying Corps.

All officers holding permanent commissions in His Majesty's Indian forces who on the first day of April, 1918, were attached to the Royal Flying Corps.

PART II.

All other officers, all warrant officers, petty officers, non-commissioned officers and men of His Majesty's naval or military forces (other than forces raised and provided by the ment of any part of His Majesty's Dominions outside the United Kingdom) who on the first day of April, 1918, belonged or were attached to the Royal Naval Air Service or the Royal Flying Corps. 

All officers holding temporary commissions on the general list of His Majesty's Indian forces and all officers of the Indian Army Reserve who on the first day of April, 1918, were attached to the Royal Flying Corps.

 

London Gazette - 1 January 1919

Air Ministry

1st January, 1919.

The Secretary of State for the Royal Air Force has  received the following Despatch from Major-General Sir H.M. Trenchard, K.C.B., D.S.O., Commanding the Independent Force, Royal Air Force: -

MY LORD, 

I have the honour to submit the following report on the work of the Independent Air Force from the 5th June to  the signing of the Armistice on the 11th November, 1918.

I have also mentioned in the earlier part of this report the work done in the attack on Germany by the squadrons from a base south-east of Nancy before the establishment of the

Stuttgart.                                                           Treves.

Weisbaden.                                                       Worms.

Voelkingen.                                                       Wadgassen.

Zweibrucken.                                                    And other miscellaneous targets.

It must also be remembered that of the 109 machines which were missing, the majority dropped bombs on targets before landing. The amount of bombs dropped by these machines is not included in the above figures.

In June the longest distance flown out and back by day was 272 miles, and by night 240 miles.

In July the longest distance flown out and back by day was 272 miles, and by night 300 miles.

In August the longest distance flown out and back by day was 330 miles, and by night 342 Captured correspondence testified to the great moral effect of the bombing attacks on Germany.

It was apparent by the end of June that the enemy was increasing the number of fighting machines opposed to us. These machines were presumably being provided from Squadrons he had withdrawn from the Russian Front and reequipped for Home Defence work. In September and October our day bombing squadrons had to fight practically from the front line to their objective, and from there home again. In several cases they had to fight the whole way out and the whole way back.  This necessitated the most careful keeping of formation in order to avoid undue casualties, as once the formation was split up the enemy's machines could attack individual machines at their leisure. When our machines were in formation he generally concentrated on 'the rear machines, occasionally making attacks on the machine in front.

I would like to state here that the courage and determination shown by the pilots and observers were magnificent. There were cases in which a squadron lost the greater part of its machines on a raid, but this in no wise damped the other squadrons keenness to avenge their comrades, and to attack the same target again and at once.

It is to this trait in the character of the British pilots that I attribute their success in bombing Germany, as even when a squadron lost the greater part of its machines, the pilots, instead of taking it as a defeat for the Force, at once turned it into a victory by attacking the same targets again with the utmost determination. They were imbued with the feeling that whatever their casualties were, if they could help to shorten the war by one day and thus save many casualties to the Army on the ground they were only doing their duty. I never saw, even when our losses were heaviest, any wavering in their determination to get well into Germany.

Long-distance bombing work requires the utmost determination, as a change of wind completely upsets all calculations that may have been made before starting. It requires fine judgment on the leader's part to know if he perseveres to the objective, whether he will have sufficient fuel to carry the formation home again safely. This will be realised when it is pointed out that on several occasions the machines with only five and a quarter hours petrol were out for that time; in one case a formation was out for five hours and thirty minutes and it only just managed to clear the front line trenches on its homeward journey.  A miscalculation of five minutes would have lost the whole formation.

Ceiling was of more importance than speed for long-distance day bombing work. It was essential that squadrons should fly as high as possible, and it soon became apparent, as I had already stated, that the two squadrons with the 200 h.p. B.H.P. engines had not sufficient power for this long-distance work. One squadron was re-equipped with D.H.9a machines with Liberty engines in November before the signing of the Armistice, and the second squadron had started re-equipping. 

The 27th Group was established in England under the command of Colonel R. H. Mulock, D.S.O., for the purpose of bombing Berlin and other centres. This Group only received the machines capable of carrying out this work at the end of October, and though all ranks worked day and night in order to get the machines ready for the attack on Berlin they were only completed three days before the signing of the Armistice.

The Daily Communiques gave all the places which were attacked, and therefore I have not repeated those reports in this despatch.

I would, however, like to bring to your notice the following important raids which show some of the difficulties met with in long-range bombing.

On the night of the 29th-30th June Handley Page machines of No.216 Squadron were ordered to attack the chemical works at Mannheim. Owing to the weather conditions only one machine reached the objective, on which it dropped its bombs.  This machine, on the homeward journey, failed to pick up its aerodrome,  and lauded no less than 160 miles 8.W.of the aerodrome undamaged. 

On the 5th July twelve machines of No.55 Squadron, under the Command of Capt. F. Williams and Capt. D. R. G. Mackay, set out to attack the railway sidings at Coblenz.  Shortly after starting the squadron passed over thick clouds and steered its course by compass, but the target was obscured by clouds. The leader turned with the intention of attacking Karthaus, but as he turned the anti-aircraft barrage over Coblenz opened. Through a small hole in the clouds he could see a portion of the target, and the formation followed him and released their bombs.

On the 31st July No.99 Squadron, under the command of Capt. Taylor, went out to attack Mainz. They encountered forty hostile scouts south of Saarbrucken. Fierce fighting ensued, as a result of which four of our machines were shot down. The remaining five machines of the formation reached Saarbrucken, and dropped their bombs on the station. On their way home they were again attacked by large numbers of hostile scouts, and suffered the loss of three more of their number.

Immediately after their return No.104 Squadron, led by Captain E. A. Mackay and Captain Home-Hay, proceeded to attack the factories and sidings at Saarbrucken, which they successfully accomplished with no losses.

On the 11th August No.104 Squadron, under the command of Major Quinnel, attacked the station at Karlsruhe, in spite of bad weather conditions, causing a heavy explosion in the station and scoring many direct hits on the railways sidings. In the course of fighting one of our machines was brought down and three of the enemy's machines were driven down out of control.

Frankfurt was attacked for the first time on August 12th by twelve machines of No.55 Squadron, under the command of Captains B. J. Silly and D. R. G. Mackay. Most of the bombs burst in the town east of the goods station, and all the machines returned safely with One pilot shut off his engine at 5,000 feet and glided in on the target from the N.W., following the river. He was at once picked up and held in the beams of the searchlights, and an intense anti-aircraft barrage was put up. The machine continually changed its course, but could not shake off the searchlights, and the pilot was completely blinded by the glare. At this moment the second machine glided in, with its engine almost stopped, underneath the first machine, got immediately over the works, below the tops of the factory chimneys, and released its bombs right into the works. The searchlights at once turned on to this machine, freeing the first machine from their glare. This machine then turned and made straight for the works as low as the second machine amongst the chimneys, and released its 1 bombs. The searchlights were turned almost horizontally to the ground and the anti-aircraft guns were firing right across the works and factories almost horizontally.  In spite of this, the two machines remained at a low altitude .and swept the factories, works, guns and searchlights with machine-gun fire.  On the return journey both of these machines passed through rain and thick clouds, whilst lightning and thunder were prevalent throughout the trip.

On the night of the 2nd-3rd September machines of No.215 Squadron attacked Buhl aerodrome and the railway junction at Ehrang, some of the machines making two trips. In the first attack on Buhl two direct hits were obtained and three fires started, all bursts being observed on and in close proximity to the hangars. The second attack was carried out from 150 to 900 feet, machines circling around the aerodrome for fifteen minutes. Excellent shooting was made and thirteen direct hits were claimed. Three hangars were entirely demolished and a fire started. In addition motor lorries were bombed from 100 feet, and a hostile machine on the ground was attacked with good results.

On the 7th September eleven machines of No. 99 Squadron, followed by ten machines of No. 104 Squadron, made an almost simultaneous attack on Mannheim, where bombs were dropped with excellent results on the Badische Anilin and Soda Fabrik.  No. 99 Squadron obtained at least eight direct hits on the factory, but the results of No. 104 Squadron could not be observed owing to the mist and smoke. Both squadrons were attacked on the outward and return journey and over the objective by superior numbers of hostile aircraft. The formation of No. 99 Squadron were led by Colonel (then Major) L. A. Pattinson, and the formation of No. 104 Squadron by Captain R. J. Gammon.

No. 99 Squadron was attacked by six hostile machines fifteen miles over the lines. These were driven off. Ten hostile machines attacked about fifteen miles over the lines. They were also driven off. Fifteen hostile machines then attacked over the objective. After dropping bombs the formation turned towards the hostile machines, which apparently disconcerted them, as they became scattered. On the return journey several enemy scouts kept up a running fight, one scout attacking from in front was driven off by the leader's observer firing over the top plane.

No. 104 Squadron was attacked at a long range fifteen miles over the lines. The enemy were driven off. Fifteen hostile machines heavily attacked over the objective and followed the formation back for seventy miles.  Near the lines the formation was again attacked by seven hostile machines.  Over two tons of bombs were dropped at Mannheim in this raid.

On the night of the 16th-17th September seven Handley Page machines were missing. Five of these, detailed for Cologne and Mannheim, were probably unable to return in the face of a strong south-westerly wind, which increased after the machines had left the ground.

The missing machines undoubtedly attacked various objectives well into Germany before they had to land. It was reported that one machine landed in Holland with engine trouble, after having dropped its bombs on Bonn, and was interned.

On the 25th September No. 110 Squadron, led by Captains A. Lindley and A. C. M. Groom, dropped over 1˝ tons of bombs on Frankfurt. They were opposed by a large number of hostile machines, two of which they destroyed. Four of our machines did not return, and, in addition, one observer was killed and one observer and one pilot were wounded.  This was the first long-distance raid carried out by this squadron.

On the night of the 21st-22nd October machines of Nos. 97 and 100 Squadrons attacked the railways at Kaiserslautern in very bad weather. Several 1,650 lb. bombs were dropped, but bad visibility obscured the results.  One very large fire and five smaller ones were observed, and all these fires were seen to be still burning when the town was lost eight of in the mist.

I would like to bring to your notice the work of bombing aerodromes done by No. 100 Squadron, commanded by Major C. G. Burge, when it was equipped with the short-distance F.E. 2b machines, and also with Handley-Pages. The squadron bombed aerodromes from low heights, and photographs show that a large number of sheds were hit.

The Independent Force, at the request of Marshal Foch, co-operated with the American First Army in its attack on the St. Mihiel salient, and it further co-operated with the Army by attacking important railway junctions behind the French lines in the combined offensive of the 26th September.

My thanks are due to Brigadier-General B. B. Gordon, D.S.O., my Chief of Staff, who carried out his responsible duties with the most commendable smoothness and efficiency.  I also desire to thank Colonel G. R. M. Church, C.M.G., my Army Troops Commander, for the admirable manner in which he carried out his very responsible duties.

Finally, I desire to express my great appreciation of the loyal work of all my own Staff, of the Commanders of Formations and their Staffs, and all the Units in the Independent Air Force serving under me, who carried out their difficult task of organising and carrying through with tact and energy the work of forming a new Air Force during active hostilities. 

I have forwarded the names of officers and other ranks deserving of special mention in a separate despatch.

                                                                                              I have the honour to be,

                                                                                                        My Lord,

                                                                                                    Your Obedient Servant,

                                                                                                       (Sd) H. TRENCHARD,

                                                                                                            Major-General,

                                                                                                 Commanding Independent Force,

                                                                                                              Royal Air Force.

The Rt. Hon.

        The Lord Weir of Eastwood,

                Secretary of State for Air,

                        Air Ministry,

                                London.

 

 

London Gazette - 5 December 1919

CENTRAL CHANCERY OP THE ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.

St. James's Palace, S.W.1.

5th December, 1919.

The three Warrants set forth .below are concerned with the establishment of the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air Force Cross, the Distinguished Flying Medal and the Air Force Medal, the institution of which was announced in the London Gazette of 3rd June, 1918 (No. 30723, page 6533) : —

ROYAL WARRANT INSTITUTING DECORATIONS AND MEDALS FOR THE ROYAL AIR FORCE.

GEORGE R.I.

GEORGE THE FIFTH, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India: To all to whom these presents shall come. Greeting!

Whereas We are desirous of signifying Our appreciation of acts of valour, courage and devotion to duty performed by Officers and Men in Our Air Force and in the Air Forces of Our Self-governing Dominions beyond the Seas, We do- hereby, for Us, Our heirs and successors, institute and create two decorations to be designated the Distinguished Flying Cross and the Air Force Cross, and two Medals, to be designated the Distinguished Flying Medal and the Air Force Medal, and We do hereby direct that the following regulations shall be made governing the said Decorations and Medals:—

Firstly. It is ordained that the Distinguished Flying Cross shall be granted only to such Officers and Warrant Officers of Our said Forces as shall be recommended to Us for an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty performed whilst flying in active operations against the enemy.

Secondly. It is ordained that the Distinguished Flying Cross shall be silver and shall consist of a Cross flory terminated in the horizontal and base bars with bombs, the upper bar terminating with a rose, surmounted by another cross composed of aeroplane propellers charged in the centre with a roundel within a wreath of laurels a rose winged ensigned by an Imperial Crown thereon the letters R.A.F. On the reverse the Royal Cypher above the date 1918. The whole attached to the clasp and  ribbon by two sprigs of laurel.

Thirdly. It is ordained that the Distinguished Flying dross shall be worn on the left breast pendant from a ribbon one inch and a quarter in width, which shall be in colour violet and white in alternate horizontal stripes of one eighth of an inch in depth. 

Fourthly. It is ordained that the award of the Distinguished Flying Cross shall entitle the recipient to have the initials D.F.C. appended to his name.

Fifthly. It is ordained that the Air Force Gross shall be granted only to such Officers and Warrant Officers of Our said Forces as shall be recommended to us for an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying though not in active operations against the enemy.

Sixthly. It is ordained that the Air Force Cross shall be silver and shall consist of a thunderbolt in the form of a cross, the arms conjoined by wings, the base bar terminating with a bomb surmounted by another cross composed of aeroplane propellers, the four ends enscribed with the letters G.V.R.I.  In the centre a roundel thereon, a representation of Hermes mounted on a hawk in flight bestowing a wreath. On the reverse the Royal Cypher above the date 1918. The whole ensigned by an Imperial Crown and attached to the clasp and ribbon by two sprigs of laurel.

Seventhly. It is ordained that the Air Force Cross shall be worn on the left breast pendant from a ribbon one inch and a quarter in width, which shall be in colour red and white in alternate horizontal stripes of one-eighth of an inch in depth.

Eighthly. It is ordained that the award of the Air Force Cross shall entitle the recipient to have, the initials A.F.C. appended to his name.

Ninthly. It is ordained that the Distinguished Flying Medal shall be granted only to such Non-commissioned Officers and Men of Our said Forces as shall be recommended to Us for an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty performed whilst flying in active operations against the enemy.  

Tenthly. It is ordained that the Distinguished Flying Medal shall be silver and oval-shaped, bearing Our Effigy on the obverse and on the reverse within a wreath of laurel a representation of Athena Nike seated on an aeroplane, a hawk rising from her right arm above the words "for Courage.'' The whole ensigned by a. bomb attached to the clasp and ribbon by two wings.

Eleventhly. It is ordained that the Distinguished Flying Medal shall be worn on the left breast pendant from a ribbon of one inch and a quarter in width, which shall be in colour violet and white in alternate horizontal stripes of one-sixteenth of an inch in depth.

Twelfthly. It is ordained that the award of the Distinguished Flying Medal shall entitle the recipient to have the initials D.F.M. appended to his name.  

Thirteenthly. It is ordained that the Air Force Medal shall be granted only to such Noncommissioned Officers and Men of Our said Forces as shall be recommended to Us for an act or acts of valour, courage, or devotion to duty performed whilst flying, though not in active operations against the enemy.

Fourteenthly. It is ordained that the Air Force Medial shall be silver and oval-shaped, bearing Our Effigy on the obverse and on the reverse within a wreath of laurel a representation of Hermes mounted on a hawk in flight bestowing a wreath. The whole ensign-ed by a bomb attached to the clasp and ribbon by two wings.

Fifteenthly. It is ordained that the Air Force Medal shall be worn on the left breast pendant from a ribbon one inch and a quarter in width, which shall be in colour red and white in alternate horizontal stripes of one-sixteenth of an inch in depth.

Sixteenthly. It is ordained that the award of the Air Force Medal shall entitle the recipient to have the initials A.F.M. appended to his name.

Seventeenthly. It is ordained that Foreign Officers and gradings of an equivalent rank to those above mentioned who have been associated in Military operations with Our Army or Our Indian, Dominion or Colonial Military Forces, shall be eligible for the award of the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air Force Cross, the Distinguished Flying Medal, and the Air Force Medal.

Eighteenthly. - It is ordained that in cases where Officers, Warrant Officers, and Men who have been awarded one of the above decorations or medals shall be recommended for a further act of valour, courage or devotion, to duty, he shall be awarded a bar to be attached to the ribbon by which the decoration or medal is suspended, and for every additional such act an additional bar may be awarded.

Nineteenthly. It is ordained that the names of those .upon whom We may be pleased to confer the: above decorations and medals shall be published in the London Gazette, and that a Register thereof shall be kept in the Office of Our Secretary of State for the Royal Air Force.

Twentiethly. It is ordained that any person whom by an especial Warrant under Our Royal Sign Manual We declare to have forfeited the above decorations, medals and bars shall return the same to the Office of Our Secretary of State for the Royal Air Force, and that his name shall be erased from the Register of those upon whom the said decorations, medals and bars shall have been conferred.

Lastly. We reserve to Ourself, Our heirs and successors full power of annulling, altering, abrogating, augmenting, interpreting, or dispensing with these Regulations or any part thereof by a notification under Our Royal Sign Manual.

Given at Our Court at St. James's under Our Sign Manual this third day of June, in the ninth year of Our Reign and in the year of Our Lord One thousand nine hundred and eighteen.

By the Sovereign's Command.

William, Weir.

ROYAL WARRANT AMENDING THE THIRD, SEVENTH, ELEVENTH AND FIFTEENTH CLAUSES OP THE ROYAL WARRANT INSTITUTING DECORATIONS AND MEDALS FOR. THE ROYAL AIR FORCE.

GEORGE R.I.

GEORGE THE FIFTH, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas Bang, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India: To all to whom these Presents shall come. Greeting!

Whereas We did, by Royal Warrant under Our Sign .Manual dated 3rd June, 1918, institute and create two decorations designated  th» Distinguished Flying Cross and the Air Force Cross and two Medals designated the Distinguished Flying Medal and the Air Force Medal to be awarded to Officers and Men in Our Air Force and in the Air Forces of Our Self-governing Dominions beyond the Seas, in recognition of acts of valour, courage and devotion to duty:

And whereas We are desirous that certain alterations 'should be made in the regulations governing the said Decorations and Medals: 

Now, therefore, We do by these Presents for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, ordain that the following ordinances shall be substituted for the corresponding ordinances in the said .Royal Warrant, and shall henceforth be construed and have the same effect as if they formed part of the said Royal Warrant: —

Thirdly. It is ordained that the Distiniguished Flying Cross shall be worn on the left breast pendant from a ribbon one inch and a quarter in width which shall be in colour violet and white in alternate diagonal stripes of one-eighth of an inch in width running at an angle of 45 degrees from left to right.

Seventhly. It is ordained that the Air Force Cross shall be worn on the left breast pendant from a ribbon one inch and a quarter in width which shall be in colour red and white in alternate diagonal stripes of one-eighth of an inch in width running at an angle of 45 degrees from, left to right.

Eleventhly. It is ordained that the Distinguished Flying Medal shall be worn on the left breast pendant from a ribbon of one inch and a quarter in width which shall be in colour violet and white in alternate diagonal stripes of one-sixteenth of an inch in width, running at an angle of 45 degrees from left to right.

Fifteenthly. It is ordained that the Air Force Medal shall be worn on the left breast pendant from a ribbon one inch and a quarter in width which shall be in colour red and white in alternate diagonal stripes of one-sixteenth of an inch in width running at an angle of 45 degrees from left to right.

Given at Our Court at St. James' this 24th day of July, in the tenth year of Our Reign and in the year of Our Lord One thousand nine hundred and nineteen. 

W. S. Churchill,

By His Majesty's Command.

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